Tag Archives: the goddess power pack

SULIS

SULIS

A Celtic goddess of water and hot springs who was worshipped locally in Bath in the UK. Identified with Minerva by the Romans, she was venerated as Sulis Minerva.  The exact meaning of her name is not certain, researchers speculate it stands for Eye, Vision and may originate from a Proto – Indo – European stem ‘suli’ meaning the sun.

ABOUT GODDESS

Sulis was a local deity of the hot springs feeding the thermal baths in Bath which the Romans called Aquae Sulis meaning ‘The Waters of Sulis’. It was typical for ancient cultures to assign demigods and demigoddesses to particular forms of landscape (e.g. Hellenic naiads who were taking care of springs). It was also not uncommon to merge older deities with their newer equivalents (e.g. the cult of Zeus Molossos in Dodona). There is, however, no evidence of her cult in other regions of Europe apart from Alzey in Germany, neither there are any recordings about how Sulis was venerated.

Luckily, approximately 130 inscribed tablets with requests to Sulis were discovered in Bath. Worshippers ask the goddess to punish people who stole small amounts of money or clothes from the bath house with illness at least until they give it back. Those requests were written in code using a British form of Latin. Again, expressing thanks and submitting requests to deity was a common practice in the ancient world; votive plaques for Nehalennia, a Germanic or Celtic goddess of journey, were discovered in her temple in Domburg (the Netherlands).

Analysing the identification of Sulis with Roman Minerva, the researchers have concluded that she may have not only been a protective and life – giving goddess mother but also the goddess of wisdom and intelligence. It is also worth to notice that that the Celts have been reluctant to merge their gods and goddesses with the Roman ones and Sulis Minerva seems to be one of very few examples of such syncretism.

Sulis Minerva’s temple was a pilgrimage destination.

IMAGES, SYMBOLS AND ANIMALS

A head from the bronze statue of Sulis Minerva from her temple was found in Bath in the 18th century. The statue was probably deliberately damaged either during the introduction of Christianity or barbarian quests.

the head from Sulis Minerva statue from her temple in Bath

DIVINATION MEANING

Person

A warm and emotional person who nevertheless can be over-sensitive and absorb the feelings&moods from the people around. Someone who adapts easily but may lose her/his individuality in the process. Also the person who suppresses negative emotions until s/he erupts like a volcano hearing a seemingly insignificant comment or a remark. S/he may be also passive, lazy and reluctant to take risk or challenge.

Advice

Think carefully whether you got stuck in a safe but boring situation or a point of your life.

Perhaps you need some rest to calm down. This card is associated strongly with water and healing so if you are planning to go to river, sea or SPA, it confirms you are making the right choice. If you cannot go to another place, simply have a long, relaxing bath.

Love

If you are in the relationship: if you are in a long term relationship, this card warns of a potential romance. A short holiday with your partner may be the solution.

If you are single: if you search for a partner, you may want to broaden your interests and search for new friends. This card suggests it’s easy for you to adapt to new surroundings. A holiday romance or a romance during the stay at the SPA resort.

Finances

Money earned thanks to tourism and visiting. An unstable financial situation. A bank transfer.

Health

Hydrating body. A drip. Hay fever. Perhaps you do not drink enough water or you drink too much coffee which dehydrates your organism. Being dehydrated by just 2% of your body mass can cause de-concentration and a headache. Drink small amounts of water regularly even if it seems to you that you are not thirsty. You will also find a lot of water in vegetables and fruits, do not forget to include them in your diet. Detoxifying and purifying diet. Endangered parts of the body: kidneys.

CARDS

Sulis in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Sulis in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Sulis in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Sulis in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Sulis in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Sulis in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Based on English Wikipedia and http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends-europe/aquae-sulis-epitome-roman-syncretization-celts-002562.

If you are in the UK, see this site http://www.smittenbybritain.com/a-weekend-in-bath/

REVIEW: GODDESS POWER PACK BY CORDELIA BRABBS

GODDESS POWER PACK

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

According to a note published on Amazon  Cordelia Francesca Brabbs is a young British journalist and a freelance author who writes articles about health, well – being and lifestyle for many UK’s top magazines and newspapers. She is working on her master’s degree in women’s studies and likes travelling around the world, snowboarding, yoga and reiki. She also seems to run trainings concerning  magic and improving financial condition. You can follow her on Facebook, YouTube oraz na Twitter.

Find out more about her on her website: http://www.magicalbadass.com/

ADVANTAGES

The cards themselves are fabulous, colourful and easy to perceive. Goddesses are presented as contemporary women but still retain their symbols: Athena (Minerva) is accompanied by owl, Lakshmi by lotus and Lilith by snake. The effect is very interesting although I suspect the reason for that was to simplify the divinatory layer as much as possible in accordance with the motto of this deck Unleash Your Inner Goddess. However, it does not change the fact that cards are simply great, they present a hypothetical situation of goddesses moving from the ancient times into modern ones. One thing is strange…there is no remark suggesting any connection of these images directly to Cordelia Brabbs. In list of acknowledgments at the end of booklet you will find Brenda Rosen as consultant editor, Alice Bowden as project editor, Sally Bond as art editor, Pia Ingham for Cobalt Id as designer, Javier Joaquin as illustrator and Louise Hall as production controller. So, if I am not mistaken, this deck should be called Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs&Javier Joaquin (or perhaps by Cordelia Brabbs, Pia Ingham&Javier Joaquin, depending on the amount of work) if only the publisher followed the good practices of issuing card decks as othes do. I do not understand why it did not happen rolleyes11.

DISADVANTAGES

If I had choice, I would only buy the cards themselves and would skip the booklet added to the deck. The booklet is full of banal esoterics and all that find the inner goddess babble, moreover it is written in everyday English which was probably intended to reach teenage girls but something tells me that even they would find this style artificial. The fact that someone is young does not mean than you can brush them off with simple tips for life. The cover of booklet itself reveals what is to come inside informing us that we will find thirty goddesses from independent Artemis and fun – loving Yemaya to nurturing Gaia and sexy Kali

The booklet discourages from using the pack rather than encourages to do it. It is a pity because the content itself is not that bad. The author draws accurate conclusions from the goddess mythology but she wastes them away by treating the reader as a child saying Do this! Do that! On one hand she encourages Stick to your beliefs, g – girl, no one can take them from you but on the other hand she determines a specific profile of what your beliefs should be: joining a protest rally, eating an apple instead of chocolate, exercising yoga, getting involved in the environment protection movement etc. I do not want to be misunderstood, it IS good lifestyle and I support it but at the same time I can understand that not everyone finds it suitable and wants to adopt it. The ton of superiority which the author uses definitely does not help:  You can be a loser and eat, drink and wear what the big – bucks companies tell you to, even if the food is stuffed full of chemicals, the lipstick was tested on animals and the T-shirt produced by sweat shop labour. Or you can  become informed about the products you buy, and make ethical choices that serve you and the planet. You can watch TV and play your games console, and live like a zombie in front of a flashing screen. Or you can exercise your body, nourish it with good food and spend your spare time having fun outdoors.  We have to remember that each of us is in a different point of their life path and it makes no sense to hurry them up. Calling someone loser will probably not help to drag them on ‘the light side of the Force’ wink3. This booklet rather than TO readers speaks ABOUT the author. I think before I started writing books with some advice for others, I would first check if I am mature enough and work with my own ego because it is ego that tells me to compare myself with others and present myself as the better one.

Nothing good will come out of imposing views on what is good and what is bad. Any person who has a very basic knowledge of esoterics and card spreading knows that cards only show a certain situation and never make a decision instead of the person inquiring. This is why the card of Lilith saying It’s time to ditch that loser is a huge faux pas 74282! If you look closely at the decks I consider to be good ones  (e.g the already analysed deck of Amy Sophia Marashinsky and Hrana Janto), you will notice that the authors only pose questions which the user should answer herself/himself. They do not take the responsibility out of user by saying Do this, do that! What will happen if a young girl indeed decides to ‘ditch that looser’ just like the author advises and will regret it later? Will Cordelia take the responsibility for it now that she was assuring it would bring the young girl such a fabulous life?

This deck includes Mary as a goddess which I find a huge disadvantage.

Another huge disadvantage is a horrible box. It naturally provokes the question, What the hell was the publisher thinking of?!

Generally speaking if you buy it, I would suggest concentrate on the deck of cards and skip the booklet. Establish the custom of drawing one card daily, observe the colours, symbols, situation presented on pictures, search for the correspondence in daily events and study the actual myths. This way you will learn much more than reading booklet.

ISSUE

30 cards

a booklet containing short information on how to use cards, who goddesses are, how to contact and worship them, how to listen to their advice, suggestions how to become the worshipper of goddess (‘g-girl’, an abbreviation from ‘goddess girl’), how to create g – gangs (‘goddess gangs’), what are the rules and codes of being ‘g-girl’ and being in ‘g-girl gangs’, descriptions of ceremonies, calendar of festive days, invocations, rituals, affirmations, sample spreads, descriptions of each card and index

box with carton insert to support cards

In a book each card is presented in the following way:

– name of a goddess

– name of a card

– short presentation of a goddess

– suggestions how a goddess can help and her message

– invocation to a goddess

– tips concerning an invocation

– affirmation

– one sentence general advice from a goddess

box cordelia brabbs

The size of cards is 13 x 8 cm

Back sides of cards show a yellow stage illuminated by headlights.

EXAMPLE CARDS

Athena (Minerva)

Athena in The Goddess Power by Cordelia Brabbs (as Minerva)

Brigid

Brigid in The Goddess Power deck by Cordelia Brabbs

Demeter

is not included in this deck

Isis

Isis in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Lakshmi

Lakshmi in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Back side

back side cordelia brabbs

Text copyright© Cordelia Brabbs 2005 

Publisher: Godsfield Press

ISBN: 1 84181 253 6

Aphrodite
Artemis
Brigid
Cerridwen
Corn Woman
Durga
Eostre
Freyja
Gaia
Hathor
Hekate
Isis
Kali
Kuan Yin
Lakshmi
Lilith
Maat
Maeve
Mary
Minerva
Oshun
Oya
Pele
Rhiannon
Sekhmet
Sulis
Tara
Uzume
Vesta
Yemanya

KALI

KALI

Hindu goddess of time, change and death, a warrior and a demon slayer who also has the aspect of goddess mother, Shiva’s shakti. Her name Kālī is a female form of the word kāla and signifies ‘black, dark one (the colour which is omnipresent before the light appears), time (she is beyond it), death (because it comes with time)’.

ABOUT GODDESS

Kali first appears in the story about the battle with demons when she jumped out of Durga’s forehead armed with a sword and a loop as the goddess was trying to kill the demon called Raktavija who multiplied whenever a drop of his blood fell down the ground. Kali caused fear with her appearance, a piercing shriek and a thirst for murder. She devoured the slain ones and annihilated Raktavija by sucking the blood out of him. She was so drunk with victory and ichor that she started to dance on the battlefield wreaking havoc and becoming a threat to a further existence of life. She was not listening to any pleas for mercy and did not let anyone stop her until Shiva, her consort, has finally lain down on her path to prevent the extermination of the whole world. This eventually sobered the goddess up and she bit her tongue as a sign of her shame. The image of Kali dancing over Shiva’s body is called Daksinakali. According to another version Shiva appeared on the battlefield disguised as a crying child. When the goddess saw him, she took pity of a baby, embraced and fed with her milk.

It must be added that apart from her warrior aspect, Kali also manifests her gentler nature. According to Tantra Kali is Mahadevi i.e. essence, Divinity Itself and all the three most important gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva arise from her ‘like bubbles in the sea’ all the time, constantly ending, arising and passing away, however leaving her intact as the source. Shiva praises her in one of the texts as the Beginning of All, Creatrix, Protectress and Destroyer. She reminds of the inseparability of life and death, helps accept the existing order and encourages to become accustomed to death. Kali is a tough mother though, a Hindu poet Rāmprasād writes about her in this way,

Can mercy be found in the heart of her who was born of the stone?*
Were she not merciless, would she kick the breast of her lord?
Men call you merciful, but there is no trace of mercy in you, Mother.
You have cut off the heads of the children of others, and these you wear as a garland around your neck.
It matters not how much I call you “Mother, Mother.” You hear me, but you will not listen.

And he later concludes that being Kali’s child means being deprived of earthly wealth and pleasures because the goddess does not give what we want, however this is what lets her worshippers reach beyond material world. Because of her Mahadevi’s aspect she is particularly respected in the Tantric teachings (Shiva laying at her feet is an embodiment of matter and Kali herself represents primordial feminine energy, according to the tantrics without energy the matter itself is lifeless*).

Another legend about Kali and Shiva tells the story of their dancing contest. Having defeated demons, the goddess settled down in the forests of  Thiruvalangadu on the south of India and terrorised its inhabitants with her violent nature. One of Shiva’s worshippers complained to him that he could not meditate in the forest because of her so Shiva decided to talk to Kali. She treated forest as her own territory so Shiva challenged her to a dancing contest. Kali was equal to him in every aspect until the moment when god performed a figure which required exposing sexual organs. Kali strongly refused and agreed to calm down enough to let Shiva’s worshippers perform their religious practices**.

Kali is particularly venerated in the north of India, especially in the region of Bengal and other areas situated within Himalayas (according to a legend Kali originates from these mountains, this is why Rāmprasād is wondering whether he can find compassion in the heart of the one who was born from the stone). A music genre called Shyama Sangeet (Dusky Music) is dedicated to Kali, it was traditionally performed by men but more and more women perform it nowadays. Goddess is venerated during the Kali Puja festival taking place at the new moon in the month of Ashwin (at the turn of September and October) which coincides with Diwali. A particular form of  Kali’s cult is venerating a hand painted image of her called Poteshawri (literary Goddess Drawn On The Piece Of Cloth), it is typical for the city of Shantipur.

IMAGES, SYMBOLS AND ANIMALS

Kali is presented as frighteningly skinny woman with bloodshot eyes, dishevelled hair, open mouth and tongue exposed, she wears a tiger skin, a belt of human hands around her waist and a necklace of skulls (traditionally 51 or 108 of them, they represent the Sanskrit letters therefore Kali is considered to be the mother of languages and mantras). She has four arms, one holds khadga (a curved sword or scimitar) or trident, the second onea severed head, the third one – a bowl (or cup made ​​from the skullcatching the dripping blood, and the fourth one is set in the shape of mudra. The weapon symbolises divine wisdom and a severed head signifies human ego explaining clearly that in order to develop soul one must get rid of daily restrictions (these items are usually held in left hands). Right hands set in mudras show that Kali provides support and blessings on the difficult path of self – development and that her follower is never alone.

As Daksinakali she keeps her right foot on the chest of lying Shiva and is accompanied by serpents and a jackal. Her skin is dark (as opposed to Shiva, whose skin is covered with white ashes from the burning pyres).

hindu-gods-kali
V0045118 Kali trampling Shiva. Chromolithograph by R. Varma.
When she is presented separately as Mahakala, she has a higher aspect of Mahadevi, the Great Goddess guarding the cosmic order. She is depicted with blue skin, three eyes, ten heads, ten arms and ten legs, each hand holds a different weapon or a sacred object, which symbolises the belief that the power of each of the gods comes from her.
kali ma 1
mahakali

DIVINATION MEANING

PERSON

The person represented by this card is constantly in motion, not afraid of taking risk and will not rest until they reach the target. The person who says the things straight and can enforce their own point of view. Also someone dominant whose presence overwhelms us, a person who seems to suck the energy out of us.

Professions: a member of law enforcement services (military, police, customs, etc.), an athlete, a liquidator, a bailiff, a controller, the person responsible for the restructuring process

ADVICE

It is not the time to be afraid and to hesitate, it is time to act and confront.

If you resist change, life will force you to change anyway but then you may have less options.

Changes are already taking place in your life, you cannot stop them. Even if everything around is falling apart, remember that something new will begin soon. Obstacles stimulate our development, thanks to them you get motivated and achieve what seemed impossible. Problems are necessary for growth. The mind and soul will not develop if they are remaining without challenges for too long.

Following old patterns will not get you anywhere. If a problem was growing for a long time, you will not solve it with the old methods, you need new ones. 

Think of what would you do if you were not afraid.

Key words: Movement. Change. Dance. Lack of control. Hunger. Being drunken. Ecstasy. Insatiability. Conscious or unconscious fear of death. The order of the world. Expressing yourself.

LOVE

If you are in the relationship:   Time of change which cannot be avoided, either strengthening or ending relationship. Widowhood.

If you are single:  High levels of woman’s libido. Reluctance to permanent relationship. Inability to compromise. Make sure that you do not drink too much alcohol at a party so that you do not wake up in the wrong bed in the morning.

FINANCES

A sudden and inevitable change of situation. Be prepared for arguments among workers or hostile actions from outside. Impoverishment. Work overload, too many duties, feeling burnout. Something that sucks finances out of the company.

HEALTH

Surgery. Amputation of body part(s). Radical therapy. Severe trauma or injury. When surrounded by other alarming cards, it signifies changes caused by proliferating cells. Too much of adrenaline and stress. Lack or excess of energy. Eating disorders. Problems with mental hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, bipolar disorder). Endangered parts of the body: limbs.

CARDS

A model image of Kali with the symbol of female energy shakti in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Kali in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Kali in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Kali in Goddess Card Pack by Juni Parkhurst

Kali in Goddess Card Pack by Juni Parkhurst

Kali in Oracle of the Goddess by Anna Franklin&Paul Mason

Kali in Oracle of the Goddess by Anna Franklin&Paul Mason

Kali dancing on Shiva’s body in The Oracle of the Goddess by Gayan Sylvie Winter&Jo Dosé

Kali dancing on Shiva's body in The Oracle of the Goddess by Gayan Sylvie Winter&Jo Dosé

Kali in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Kali in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Kali in Goddess Inspiration Oracle by Kris Waldherr

Kali in Goddess Inspiration Oracle by Kris Waldherr

Kali in Goddess: A New Guide to Feminine Wisdom by River Huston&Patricia Languedoc

Kali in Goddess: A New Guide to Feminine Wisdom by River Huston&Patricia Languedoc

Kali in Goddesses&Sirens by Stacey Demarco&Jimmy Manton

Kali in Goddesses&Sirens by Stacey Demarco&Jimmy Manton

Kali in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Kali in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Kali in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano as Death

Kali in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

Based on English Wikipedia.

* Tantra’s teachings are about co-existence and co-dependence of male element (shiva) with the female one (shakti). Tantra says that it is shakti, a creative and dynamic energy which stimulates shiva, a driving and static consciousness to act. The tantrics see it literary because in case of most men their strategic body part rises and “awakes to life” as a reaction to woman’s presence. One of folk tales about deities tells the story of Parvati asking Shiva which one of her ten forms he likes best. He immediately pointed out at Kali because without jewellery, garments, emotions and humanity she is a pure, raw and chaotic energy as terrifying as the time itself and perhaps even greater. When she assumes this free from limitations, wild and uncontrolled form, Shiva lays down at her feet and asks her to put the feet on his heart. Only Shiva is able to tame her and only  Kali is able to enliven him.

** However, when presented on modern images Kali is naked because as a representation of time she is beyond the veil of Maya – Illusion. Kali is perceived as an eternal life force and driving energy providing the existence of the world so the categories of “good” and “evil” cannot be attributed to her. To understand her nature, one must reject this duality and accept the fact that just like death does not exist without life, life cannot exist without death.

LAKSHMI

LAKSHMI

A Hindu goddess of abundance, wealth, prosperity both in the material and spiritual field, fertility, generosity, good luck, splendour, light, wisdom and courage. An incarnation of shakti, the feminine energy and an embodiment of beauty, charm and grace. She is also venerated as Mahalakshmi and her name in its full form means ‘Remover of Universal Agonies’. She is also called Śri, Padma, Thirumagal or Gunas. Some Hindu beliefs such as Sri Vaishnava consider her to be Iswarigm sarva bhootanam i.e. the supreme deity, not only the goddess of wealth.

ABOUT GODDESS

Lakshmi came to being during Samudra Manthan, the quest to get amrit by churning the Ocean of Milk. At the very beginning both Devas (gods) and Asuras (demons) were mortal but they all wanted to become immortal. Therefore they decided to stop wars against one another, call a truce and collaborate together to churn Kshirsagar – ‘The Ocean of Milk’ in order to get amrit (soma), a nectar which granted immortality and eternal youth. They used Mount Mandarachala and Vasuki, the king of serpents as their churning rode and churning rope; Devas stood on one side, Asuras on the other and they started to pull back and forth. Fourteen precious objects appeared during churning, among them

– Kamadhenu, divine cow granting wishes,

– a seven – headed horse,

– Kaustubha, the most valuable jewel in the world which was later worn by Vishnu

– Parijat, an ever-blossoming tree

– Varuni, the goddess of wine

– the moon

– the sun

– and last but not least goddess Lakshmi. Emerging from the petals of a lotus, she amazed everyone and de concentrated Asuras. Because of her associations with lotus (she was either resting in the flower or holding it in her hand) she is called Padma (‘Lotus Dweller’). Vishnu has immediately fallen in love with her and she soon became his consort; it is believed that she accompanies him in all his incarnations.

Lakshmi is considered to be the shakti of Vishnu (his feminine power). She grants well-being to her followers, brings a stroke of luck and protects against any poverty and worries caused by material issues. She is also an intermediary between her husband Vishnu and the humankind; a protectress who influences the fate, mitigates disputes and is more approachable than her husband, that is why the Hindu call upon him through Lakshmi (she resembles Christian Mary in this aspect). She is also a personification of spiritual energy Kundalini and believed to be the Mother of Universe.

It has to be noticed that Hinduism stresses the fact that wealth and abundance are not restricted to the material area but also spiritual one as they are related.  Lakshmi’s divinity is also manifested through Fame, Knowledge, Courage, Strength, Victory, Children, Valour, Gold, Gems, Grain, Happiness, Bliss, Intelligence, Beauty, Higher Aims, High Thinking, Higher Meditation, Morality, Ethics, Good Health, Long Life and other examples of well being. Ashta Lakshmi (eight Lakshmis, goddess’ secondary expressions) are distinguished in her cult: Adi Lakshmi, Dhana Lakshmi, Dhanya Lakshmi, Gaja Lakshmi, Santana Lakshmi, Veera Lakshmi, Vijaya Lakshmi, Vidya Lakshmi). Ashta Lakshmi are represented by an eight pointer star called the star of Lakshmi

star of lakshmi

This is why money is treated as a manifestation of the goddess; when a coin falls down or touches a foot, the gesture of Pranāma is performed (person first touches the coin with the finger tip of their right hand and then their forehead and/or chest). Similarly this gesture is the apology for books and written materials which are treated as the manifestation of goddess Saraswati.

Another earthly manifestation of Lakshmi is a cow. Cattle is treated as a sign of wealth in various religions, not only in Hinduism but also Buddhism, Zoroaster and European beliefs. Cows were respected also in ancient Egypt, Hellas and Rome; cow is a central figure of creation myth in the legends of Germanic tribes (Audhumla). Those of you who have basic knowledge of runes surely know that the sign which begins the Elder Futhark, Fehu, is associated with cattles because cows and bulls were the visible evidence of wealth. Hindu texts suggest that a cow is an embodiment of many gods and goddesses, Lakshmi resides at its hind part.

cow fehuv

Lakshmi conditions life according to Hindu beliefs, without her there would not be harvests, air to breathe nor offspring therefore she is called pranadayini (“giver of vital life-sustaining energy”). For that reason Lakshmi can be identified with Hellenic Demeter as the goddess of vegetation and life force, in fact one of Lakshmi Puran(a) legends resembles the one about abducting Kore. Shriya, a woman originating from a lower caste, was so devoted to the goddess that she visited her in person which resulted in the anger of god Balabhadra. He forbade Lakshmi entry to the temple and the goddess became so sad that she left the place and went to her father. However, with her departure all the wealth and abundance disappeared from the temple and Balabhadra had to beg for food. It was at that time that he realised his mistake, he came to Lakshmi to apologise her and invite back to the temple to which she agreed.

The Hindu venerate her every day but her sacred time is October with Diwali, the Festival of Lights, when small olive lamps are traditionally brought in front of the house for Lakshmi to give her blessing to the family dwelling in it. An offering of food and sweets is given to her, Lakshmi’s followers pray and chant a litany of her 108 names. It is believed that on that night Lakshmi descends to Earth on her owl to remove poverty, stagnation and laziness and showers her worshippers with wealth. It is a special day for the Hindu when they give presents to one another and go gambling because Lakshmi is considered to be the one who brings good luck. She is also celebrated during the full moon of Ashvin (September – October) in the Eastern state of Orisa during the holiday called Sharad Purnima (or Kumar Purnima, purnima meaning ‘the full moon’). It is one of the most important and the most popular festivals in the state; it lasts up to ten days filled with singing, dancing and decorating Lakshmi’s figures. Young girls are given new clothes as presents, they prepare food offerings for the sun in the morning and go fasting the whole day and having performed rituals eat them when the moon rises. Sharad Purnima is said to release so much joy and positive energy that even non-Hindu participate in the celebrations. The Hindu also thank Lakshmi for the harvest in the month of Mrigashirsha (December – January) during the festival Manabasa Gurubara (also called Lakshmi Puja), houses are decorated with flowers and garlands each Thursday and the traces of feet are painted on the stairs as if Lakshmi entered the household. All the rituals are performed by housewives, rice is given to the goddess as an offering and then eaten by the family and the legend of Lakshmi Puran(a) is told in the evening. It is also the time of closing the year of trade, new trade books are established and sacrificed to Lakshmi in any places dealing with circulation of merchandise.

Traditionally the chakras of heart and solar plexus are attributed to Lakshmi.

IMAGES, SYMBOLS AND ANIMALS

Lotus is traditionally attributed to Lakshmi, she has numerous nicknames connected to this flower (Padma – ‘Lotus Dweller’, Padmamaladhara Devi – ‘The One Who Wears a Garland of Lotuses’, Padmamukhi -‘ The One Whose Face Is as Beautiful as a Lotus’ etc). Lotus symbolises the force and fertility of plants; the Hindu myths claim that the world constantly revives from the lotus placed on the Vishnu’s belly button. Her sacred animal is cow but she is usually depicted accompanied by two elephants. An animal associated with her is owl symbolising royalty, sharp eyes and intelligence; both an owl and an elephant are her vahana, ‘vehicle’ i.e.  animals identified with a particular deity (e.g. a tiger and a lion are assigned to Durga).

Lakshmi is depicted peaceful and smiling either sitting or standing on a large lotus. She wears a saree made from red (a symbol of permanent activity) or gold (a symbol of fulfilment) material, she usually has golden jewellery and a golden crown with rubies, her hair is dark and wavy and her skin has a golden tone. Lakshmi typically pours coins out of her hand while in her three other arms she holds a jar with gold, a sheaf of grain or presents a mudra.

DIVINATION MEANING

Person

A person with a warm, creative, protective, tender, energetic and joyful personality who attracts people. The person who is beautiful both inside and outside. Somebody who suddenly appears in our lives to help us and brings us optimism and joie de vivre. Somebody whom we feel free and happy with. In negative this card signifies a person lacking Lakshmi’s energy: complaining, avaricious, rigid, self – limiting, focusing on the negative, poor not necessarily in the financial field but rather spiritually.

Professions: all the professions connected with the flow of money, food processing and agriculture, a teacher, a guardian, a psychologist, people working in the gambling and lottery industry

ADVICE

Wealth is manifested both in the material and the spiritual field, the first one appears in the form of objects while the second one in the form of health, optimism, friendship, courage etc. Even having few objects you can still be rich as long as you do not lack mental and spiritual capital. Thanks to wisdom and spirit you can always get more objects while having a lot of objects would not make you happy and fulfilled. Wealth can be manifested through the quality of your life: satisfactory job, loving partner, children bringing joy, good health, free time, devoted friends etc. Wealth based on objects is never enough and keeps demanding for more.

Think of your actual attitude to money. Coin is a symbol that people adopted as a determinant of worth and of exchange of goods, it is also a manifestation of life – giving abundance which Higher Forces pour onto you. As long as you remember that money is a mean, not the ultimate goal, you do not have to feel shame or any other negative emotions about owning. Money is an energy too, and it attracts likewise energy. If you concentrate your thoughts on lack of money and think of yourself as a poor person, it is rather doubtful that you will get more money. If you start thinking that you will not lack anything, you will program your subconsciousness in a positive way. Your subconsciousness has a bigger influence in decision-making process than you would expect. A mind open to abundance does not guarantee high numbers on your bank account but closing it with fear and anxieties will certainly not attract prosperity nor wealth neither. Free yourself from thinking focused on lack, it is not a one time activity but a long term process. Start repeating to yourself, I always have money or Money come to me easily. You do not even have to believe it, just repeat it to yourself every day for a couple of months. When money is flowing, energy is flowing, too. Invite abundance and luxury by buying yourself a small gift (and do not feel guilty about it).

Be responsible for what you have. Apply a reasonable balance between gathering and spending. Do not forget that even having a small income, you can give others a lot simply by your wisdom, involvement or at least smile and kindness. Welcome wealth in your life no matter what form it takes. When you spend money, do not think that you are losing it, focus on what you are gaining.

Being successful in the financial field does not necessarily mean you are shallow or not spiritual.

Watch over your wealth, if you use it for a wrong purpose, it will get you into trouble.

There are some features which describe a wealthy mind. Try to perceive the world like a child does: everything is a new and fresh opportunity. This is what wealthy mind does. Energy follows attention so be careful where you direct it. Your perception helps in changing your reality. Concentrate on achieving your goals but do not forget to have fun, too. Authenticity, serenity and flexibility are like gold for your psyche.

BE THANKFUL FOR EVERY MANIFESTATION OF WEALTH IN YOUR LIFE

(I rarely suggest visualisations in my posts but the image of Lakshmi is itself a visualisation, it is easy to imagine her pouring coins at you and a light emanating from a lotus calms you down and fills you with serenity).

Love

If you are in the relationship: a good card if you ask about marriage and offspring, possible pregnancy. A very good life partner who makes you blossom. In negative: a miser or somebody who does not show emotions.

If you are single: a new partner may appear in your life as a complete surprise, it is worth to give the new relationship a try.

Finances

In most cases this card gives a positive answer to a question concerning finances. It suggests the flow of money or an investment.

Health

Good health. An excess or deficiency of nutrients in body. Risk of obesity and diabetes. Check the level of cholesterol. Endangered parts of the body: stomach, pancreas, colon, intestines.

CARDS

Lakshmi in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Lakshmi in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Lakshmi in the Goddesses of the New Light by Pamela Matthews

Lakshmi in the Goddesses of the New Light by Pamela Matthews

Lakshmi with Vishnu as Wheel of Fortune in The Goddess Tarot by Kris Waldherr

Lakshmi in The Goddess Tarot by Kris Waldherr

and in Goddess Inspiration Oracle by Kris Waldherr

Lakshmi in Goddess Inspiration Oracle by Kris Waldherr

Lakshmi in Oracle of the Goddess by Anna Franklin&Paul Mason

Lakshmi in Oracle of the Goddess by Anna Franklin&Paul Mason

Lakshmi in The Goddess Wisdom Cards by Jill Fairchild, Regina Schaare & Sandra M. Stanton

Lakshmi in The Goddess Wisdom Cards by Jill Fairchild, Regina Schaare & Sandra M. Stanton

Lakshmi as King of Coins in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

Lakshmi in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

Lakshmi in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Lakshmi w Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

and in Ascended Masters Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Lakshmi in Ascended Masters Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Lakshmi in The Oracle of the Goddess Gayan by Sylvie Winter&Jo Dosé

Lakshmi in The Oracle of the Goddess Gayan by Sylvie Winter&Jo Dosé

Lakshmi in Goddess Card Pack by Juni Parkhurst

Lakshmi in Goddess Card Pack by Juni Parkhurst

Lakshmi in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Lakshmi w The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Lakshmi with Vishnu in Goddesses&Sirens by Stacey Demarco&Jimmy Manton

Lakshmiin Goddesses&Sirens by Stacey Demarco&Jimmy Manton

Lakshmi in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Lakshmi in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Based on: http://jyotish.yogamaya.pl/index.php?op … Itemid=104
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cattle_in_religion http://www.priestservices.com/our-services/gho-pooja/, http://www.goseva.net/cowanddivinity.aspx

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HESTIA (VESTA)

HESTIA (VESTA)

A Hellenic goddess of house, home, hearth and family as well as order and organisation. Hestia is Cronus and Rhea’s eldest daughter and a sister to Demeter, Hera, Zeus, Poseidon and Hades. She has never got married nor had children herself.  There was Hestia’s sacred hearth in every house,  village or town of the ancient Hellenic world and the first offering was always dedicated to this goddess. Her name means hearth, fireside. She was venerated in Rome as Vesta and considered to be one of the top deities of a Roman pantheon.

ABOUT GODDESS

Hestia was highly respected for her immaculate nature. She disapproved bloodshed, did not participate in wars and intrigues, did not gossip nor was spiteful. She valued peace most and apparently was disgusted by the behaviour of Olympic deities because she gave her place in the council of gods to Dyonisos as soon as he came to the mount (there could be no more than twelve deities in the Olympian council). Despite Poseidon and Apollo’s wooing she decided to stay a virgin.

Hestia was particularly respected as a goddess literary closest to people. She resembles an Egyptian goddess Maat in the way that she does not appear in a lot of myths and does not have many temples, she is, however, a base of social order in Hellas and her cult is manifested through rituals. A hearth was situated in the centre of a Hellenic house, giving the inhabitants warmth and shelter when darkness fell, being a place where both sacrifices were offered to gods and food was prepared for people. When a baby was born, it was carried around a hearth and the family was asking the goddess for blessings, the child was then put on a cooled down ash of a heart to introduce it to heaven and earth. A marriage rite in ancient Hellas focused on a hearth too; a bride’s mother was lightning a torch up in the hearth of her house and was carrying it in a procession to newly-weds’ house where a new fire was lit up, from that moment marriage was considered to be concluded. Prayers have always begun with invoking Hestia, women have asked her to protect their children and grandchildren; she was also called upon before setting off a journey to help travellers come back home safely. It was a form of an early divination to observe a smoke from burning altars to see whether gods accepted the offering or not: if the smoke was rising straight to heavens, it was an omen of gods’ grace but if the smoke was circling down among altars, it signified that deities were not supportive.

Her sacred flame was present in every Hellenic settlement, people were watching over it carefully because if fire extinguished, it would signify gods’ disgrace (on a more practical level it was not easy to rekindle it in the times when matches have not been invented yet). The flame was only extinguished to be ritually renewed during the purification ceremonies. When ships were leaving Hellas to start a new colony, there was always a flame from the city they were setting off. This flame burning in a new place was a symbol of unity between the colony and its hometown. Outlaws and those escaping a vengeance or being chased, found a refugee by her altar, no one could hurt them from that moment on because they were protected by the goddess.

Hestia’s cult as Vesta has developed in a special way in Rome where her temple was the only sacral building of a round shape and having a roof to protect the sacred flame against the rain. Similarly to the inhabitants of Hellas, Romans also believed that fire represented their state and it was essential to keep it burning, however according to Georges Dumezil* they have associated Vesta strictly with earth and its burning core hidden under a crust which was sometimes breaking through  e.g during the eruption of a volcano. They also noticed the connection of fire with the nature’s cycles, cultivation and life, especially with the beginning of life**. Also similarly to Hellas, Vesta’s altar was a hearth in atrium; she was likewise associated mainly with women who generally functioned in a family space, not a public one. Interestingly, when it comes to order of Roman prayers Vesta was called upon as the last deity, not the first one as in Hellas.

Vesta’s sacred fire was watched over by six (seven in the end-stage era of Rome) vestal virgins i.e. Vesta’s priestesses. The service at the temple lasted thirty years; Rome’s high priest (pontifex maximus) was choosing girls of preschool age originating from the patrician families who were to move to a three storey building of Atrium Vestae near forum.

220px-Vestalvirgins11

Here is the reconstruction.

220px-Casa-vestali

There were twelve younger girls in the house apart from main vestal virgins, they were adepts who were preparing themselves to the service in the goddess’ temple and vowed chastity for thirty years (it liberated them from the custody of their fathers and other men, a vestal virgin was the daughter of a state). The thirty years of service was divided into three decades: for the first ten years they were learning, for the next ten years they watched over the fire and for the last ten years they were teaching young girls. There were not many requirements for a girl to become a vestal virgin, she only had to be healthy and sane, both her parents had to be alive and Roman citizens (at first only patricians, later also plebeians were included). In case of one of vestal virgins’ sudden death, candidates to take her place were presented, the only requirement was woman’s good opinion; she didn’t have to be neither a child nor a virgin, usually young widows or even divorcees were appointed (although divorcees were considered to bring bad luck). Vestal virgins were easily recognised by their apparel, apart from a regular tunic and stola, they were wearing a white woollen fillet called infula, a white woollen veil worn during rituals and sacrifices called suffibulum,  white and red woollen ribbons symbolising Vesta’s fire and the vow of chastity and a long shawl draped over a left shoulder called palla.

200px-Vestalin

Vestal virgins’ duties included keeping the fire from extinguishing (allowing that happen was punished by flogging), bringing water from a sacred spring, taking care of sacred objects such as palladium***, preparing ritual food and mola salsa, a mixture of salt, flour and wheat, which was later used to sprinkle animal victims. Vestal virgins were so respected that they were often put in charge of executing testaments  (this is what Julius Cesar and Mark Anthony did among others). Any inhabitant of Rome could receive fire to take it to their house and in the times of Empire, Vesta’s hearth was considered to be the emperor’s household fire.

Breaking the vow of chastity was punished by being buried alive in a tomb on Campus Sceleratus (Evil Field) with a supply of food and water for a couple of days only. This way of punishing resulted from the interdiction of spilling blood and burying within the city limits. During one thousand years of Vesta’s fire cult only several of such cases were noted. The one from 114 bC is particularly interesting when as many as three Vestal virgins Aemilia,  Marcia and Licinia were condemned death for ‘multiple adultery’; most probably their processes were fabricated and they became scapegoats. Evidence against them included the Sibylline prophecies and witnesses describing literally orgies taking place in the Vestal house; the process itself was provoked by a thunder striking a travelling girl so superstitious Romans immediately thought of that as of gods’ anger and started to search for a reason***. According to the legend Rhea Silvia, daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa was also punished this way. Numitor’s brother seized the throne and forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal virgin hoping this will prevent her from giving birth to a potential avenger who in turn would deprive him of power. However, Mars the god of war took advantage of Rhea Silvia who gave birth to twins Remus and Romulus. Children were left in a forest to die there, luckily their divine father sent a she-wolf to feed them with her own milk. Shame on him that he show no similar care about their mother and did not save her from the consequences that she had to face because of him; after all such deux ex machina (unexpected turn of events) is often featured in myths of Hellenic gods who seduced mortal women.

This story may be the symbol of how women were treated in Rome, it must be noted that comparing with average female inhabitants Vestal virgins were an exception. They were ‘the daughters of Rome’, so did not belong to their fathers, brothers or sons, they were respected, could act independently, vote, possess and manage property, give oaths because their word was trusted without question. They were free to travel in a carriage preceded by a lictor, they were participating in celebrations and performances with the right to sit in a reserved place of honour and had right to free a condemned prisoner (which they showed by touching him,  also if a person sentenced to death saw a Vestal on his way to an execution place was automatically pardonned). Because of Vestal virgins’ immaculate reputation they were entrusted with particularly valuable state documents such as treaties. Their person was sacrosanct so every attack on a Vestal virgin was considered to be a coup d’etat and punished by death for treason.

The chief Vestal (Virgo Vestalis Maxima or Vestalium Maxima – ‘the greatest, the eldest of Vestals’) was the only woman to be included in the College of Pontiffs gathering all the high priests of native Roman cults. After 30 years of service a former Vestal virgin was obtaining a pension and had the right to leave the temple, get married and give birth to children. A marriage to a former Vestal was considered to be a huge honour and very lucky. Emperor Elagabalus did something more and married a Vestal virgin Aquilia Severa who was an officeholder at the time of her marriage. It was a very logical thing to do from his point of view as a follower of Eastern religions (vide post about Ishtar and the instytution of sacred marriage between a king and a high priestess), however the Romans considered it to be a sacrilege.

The flame in the temple was renewed every year on March 1st and the goddess’ festival called Vestalia was celebrated between 7th and 15th of June. The temple was the place where no one except of Vestal virgins had access to but on the first day of festival mothers were allowed to enter it to bring the offering of food.

Vesta’s flame had been burning in Rome for about nine centuries until it was extinguished in 391/394  of our era when Emperor Theodosius forbade any other religions than Christianity. According to contemporary recordings Serena, a Christian and Emperor’s adopted daughter, entered Vesta’s temple, took a necklace off the statue of Rhea Silvia and put it on. An old woman, Coelia Concordia, the last Virgo Vestalis Maxima, got indignant seeing such an act of sacrilege and prophesied a punishment to her. Indeed, Serena had later the dreams about her own death (and she died executed during the siege of Rome in 409, accused of conspiring with the enemy and high treason). An old Vestal was not the only one who got outraged at what Theodosius was doing; plenty of Romans was saying aloud that the sack of Rome in 410 by the Visigoths led by King Alaric and the following fall of an actual power of Roman Empire was a punishment for a Christian annihilation of cults celebrating deities who were protecting the Eternal City for almost one thousand years.

IMAGES, SYMBOLS AND ANIMALS

Some  sculptures of Hestia remained presenting her as a majestic woman wearing simple clothes and a veil and holding a stick or a staff in a hand. She was, however, mainly represented by a hearth and a burning flame itself.

Hestia

DIVINATION MEANING

PERSON

In positive meaning the person shown by this card is peaceful and balanced, often working in the profession dealing with implementing law or ensuring that everything is done in accordance to procedures. Somebody who values tradition and order and does not want to violate them. In negative meaning a person who is passive, conformist, shallow and superficial; possibly avoids making decisions and wants to make everybody happy. This person may be too strict and rigid and sticks to the decision made earlier no matter what. A person who is very much devoted to family and house.

Profession: an official, a clerk, a police officer, a firefighter, an auditor, a controller, an architect, an interior designer, parent working at home or a housewife/househusband, a clergy person, a priest/priestess, a monk/nun.

ADVICE

This cards concentrates mostly on family life as well as law&official cases. Make sure everything is ok in these areas of your life. Try to smooth over disputes with your loved ones, Hestia encourages you to be gentle. Even if you disagree with somebody, you do not have to impose your own opinions on them. Remember that holding grudges and keeping anger inside is mostly harmful to you.

Perhaps you do not have your own space in the house or it is only the place to sleep before you leave early for work. Your home should be your retreat and shelter from rush, stress and anger , not another source of them. If you cannot stand the atmosphere at home, this card definitely suggests moving out. You choose who should be in your environment. Either biological or emotional family gives us support and the feeling of continuity and belonging to a larger whole. Home is above all the feeling of belonging.

It is good to take care of your flat or house because your environment influences directly your mood, the level of energy and the ability to regenerate. This card suggest a major clean up or repairs, throwing unnecessary things away and rearranging your space. If you live in a house without a fireplace, you may consider installing it; you would be surprised how much it may improve the spirits at home.

In the situation you are inquiring you should act honestly and lawfully, otherwise consequences may be very serious.

This card also suggests a certain ritual: regardless of your religion or lack of faith, you should light a candle and/or an incense at least for a couple of minutes every day and while staring at it rethink your day, attitude and behaviour. Learn from your mistakes and then clean your mind from negative thoughts. We are accustomed to the fact that altar is situated at church and yet even the simplest domestic activities may be sacred. It is worth to follow the ancient who offered sacrifices and prepared food on the same hearth. What is intended for the body must be paired with what is intended for the spirit.

Never let your inner flame extinguish. Soul needs warmth to bloom.

Family. Home. House or flat. Religion. Law. Rules. Tradition. Journey. Celebrations and festivals. City.

LOVE

If you are in the relationship: Marriage or official confirmation of a relationship. Do not forget to fan the flame in the relationship, otherwise it will be extinguished. Provide warmth in mutual relations. A moment when casual matters begin to dominate reality.

If you are single: Perhaps you pay too much attention to external aspect of romantic relationship. If you want your partner to declare their feelings, propose and start a family too fast, you may startle a potential candidate. Beware of thinking I want to be in a relationship with anyone, just not to be alone. Reluctance to engage emotionally. An inner need to remain single.

FINANCES

Promotion. A strong position. Respect of co-workers. Restriction of freedom. An influence of law or office on your work and the way it functions. An official control in your workplace. To resolve the problem you are inquiring you should follow precisely the letter of the law. Work at home.

HEALTH

Fever. Inflammation. Body temperature fluctuations. Exacerbation of medical conditionPatient care at homeExcess or lack of energy.  Endangered parts of the body: heart, arteries, reproductory system, small intestine.

CARDS

As I mentioned above Hestia/Vesta was manifesting herself through the fire itself, not necessarily through statues. This is why I appreciate the cards from Thalia Took and Kay Stevenson’s decks which represent her in this way:

Hestia in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took (as Vesta)

Hestia in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Hestia in Ancient Feminine Wisdom by Kay Stevenson&Brian Clark

Hestia in Ancient Feminine Wisdom by Kay Stevenson&Brian Clark

Hestia in The Goddess Oracle deck by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Hestia in The Goddess Oracle deck by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Hestia in The Goddess Wisdom Cards by Jill Fairchild, Regina Schaare & Sandra M. Stanton (as Vesta)

Hestia in The Goddess Wisdom Cards by Jill Fairchild, Regina Schaare & Sandra M. Stanton

Hestia in Goddesses of the New Light by Pamela Matthews (as Vesta)

Hestia in Goddesses of the New Light by Pamela Matthews

Hestia in Oracle of the Goddess by Anna Franklin&Paul Mason (as Vesta)

Hestia in Oracle of the Goddess by Anna Franklin&Paul Mason

Hestia in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue (as Vesta)

Hestia in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Hestia in The Goddess Power by Cordelia Brabbs (as Vesta)

Hestia in The Goddess Power by Cordelia Brabbs

Beware! Hestia from Goddesses&Sirens by Stacey Demarco&Jimmy Manton (as Vesta) will hit you with a candlestick in a momentgrinrotfl2!

Hestia from Goddesses&Sirens by Stacey Demarco&Jimmy Manton

Hestia with her lips pumped up with silicone in Mythic Oracle by Carisa Mellado&Michele-lee Phelan

Hestia in Mythic Oracle by Carisa Mellado&Michele-lee Phelan

Hestia as Ten of Cups in in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

Hestia in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

*Georges Dumezil, a French philologist exploring the roots of proto-Indo – European, presents numerous similarities between the Vedic (Agni), Persian and Hestia/Vesta cult of fire. The cult of fire and purity remained to this very day in the Zoroaster rites. Similarities with Celtic goddess Brigid are obvious, too.

** Esoteric tradition recognises Fire as the beginning, the first element followed by Water, Air and Earth. First four figures of Major Arcana in Tarot correspond to this division: The Mage, The High Priestess, The Empress and The Emperor as well as the traditional order of Minor Arcana: Wands (Fire), Chalices (Water), Swords (Air) and Coins (Earth).

***It also included protecting sacred objects such as palladion, a wooden statue of Pallas Athena which as the legend says was saved by Aeneas from burning Troy. Palladium was the symbol of city and its civilisation.

**** Additionally these are recordings of stories which seem very similar to Middle – Age legends. One of them tells the story of a Vestal virgin Tuccia who brought the water from the Tiber to the temple of Vesta in a sieve to prove her innocence (told by Pliny the Elder). Another legend speaks about a Vestal virgin Aemilia who let the sacred flame extinguish by accident and asked Vesta to protect her against the punishment. She rekindled the flame miraculously by throwing a piece of garment on the coals of the hearth (it brings the resemblance with Brigid and clooties).

Based on Mity Greków i Rzymian by Wanda Markowska, Dictionnaire de la mythologie grecque et romaine by Pierre Grimal, The Greek Myths by Robert Graves, Wikipedia and http://books.google.pl/books?id=cRS3E3u3HuAC&pg=PA104&lpg=PA104&dq=114+b.c.+vestal+virgins&source=bl&ots=KmguiRMVfX&sig=i6sp2-vfotMzp9TBhRX_reS2n7g&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1nu3T6SZCdDHtAbez7nzBw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=114%20b.c.%20vestal%20virgins&f=false , http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-clothing/vestal-virgins-clothing.htm .

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RHIANNON

RHIANNON (RIGATONA)

Celtic goddess of horses and the Underworld. A Welsh epic of Mabinogion describes her as Pryderi’s mother and the wife of first Pwyll and then Manawyddan. Her name Rhi Annon (Ri Ana) means ‘the Great Queen’.

ABOUT GODDESS

Rhiannon was a Celtic goddess of horses also known as Rigatona and identified with her continental counterpart Epona, the only Celtic goddess worshipped by the Romans. However, the Welsh mostly know her as the heroin of the First and the Third Branch of Mabinogion saga.

Not much is known about how her cult looked like because no written descriptions remained (the Celts have not written  their history not myths down so they only circulated in an oral tradition). The only items associated with Rhiannon which survived to this day are figures and reliefs of a woman sitting on a horse. Mabinogion is a cycle of Welsh legends which nevertheless were not recorded in writing until the Christian era. Christian scribes in monasteries were removing elements incompatible with the new religion therefore Rhiannon is not referred to as a goddess in the saga*. The first translation of Mabinogion from Welsh into English was not made until half  of the 19th century; the translator was Lady Charlotte Guest, an outstanding personality and the promoter of Welsh culture and literature.

Rhiannon first appears in the First Branch of Mabinogion when Pwyll the prince of Dyfed noticed her while hunting. She was sitting on a pure white horse of large size, with a garment of shining gold around her and when the prince asked his companions whether they knew her, they said they did not. Pwyll told them to ask the lady who she was but she fled on a horse back so quickly that Pwyll’s servants could not catch her. It happened again and again and finally Pwyll became so intrigued that he got on the horse himself and chased the mysterious lady but even having the swiftest horse in the kingdom, he was unable to reach her. At last he was so tired of the pursuit that he called, Lady, please do stop! She did and replied, I will gladly stop and it would have been better for your horse if you had done it much earlier. When she took off the part of a headdress which was covering her face, Pwyll realised she was the most beautiful woman he had ever met. The girl introduced herself as Rhiannon, the daughter of Heveydd Hên who wanted to marry her to a man against her will. She then added, But no husband would I have, and that because of my love for thee, neither will I yet have one unless thou reject me. Of course, Pwyll was not intending to reject her, moreover he added that if he could choose from all the women in the world, he would choose nobody but her. They arranged to meet in her father’s castle in exactly one year time and then parted.

Asked about the mysterious lady Pwyll changed the subject. However, when an arranged time came, he gathered one hundred horsemen and went to Heveydd Hên’s palace where he was welcomed cordially and a feast was arranged in his honour. Pwyll was seated between Heveydd Hên and Rhiannon but the good atmosphere was destroyed at the end of the feast when a richly dressed young man entered the chamber. His name was Gwawl the son of Clud and he was Rhiannon’s wealthy suitor. Gwawl started to talk with Pwyll and manoeuvred the unaware prince to agree on his marriage with Rhiannon. To prevent it, Rhiannon gave a bag to her beloved and ordered him to come back with his horsemen in one year time during her feast before the wedding. She ordered him to wear rags and ask for as much food as the bag could contain and she would use her magical powers to make it bottomless so the guests would wonder what to do to make it fill. Say thou then that it never will, until a man of noble birth and of great wealth arise and press the food in the bag with both his feet, saying, ‘Enough has been put therein’, said Rhiannon. I will cause him to go and tread down the food in the bag, and when he does so, turn thou the bag, so that he shall be up over his head in it, and then slip a knot upon the thongs of the bag. Let there be also a good bugle horn about thy neck, and as soon as thou hast bound him in the bag, wind thy horn, and let it be a signal between thee and thy knights.

This was exactly what happened one year later; hearing the signal Pwyll’s knights entered the chamber, disarmed Gwawl’s companions and cast them into the dungeons. Gwawl himself was still immobilised in the bag until he swore to Pwyll that he would resign from the marriage with Rhiannon, respect Pwyll’s relationship with her and would not take vengeance.  He was released with his people and left immediately. Pwyll and Rhiannon were able to get married. Pwyll gave a lot of gifts to his wife’s kinsmen and then he took  Rhiannon to his castle in Dyfed where in turn she gave gifts to her husband’s subjects.

The marriage was happy but still childless after two years. In the third year the noblemen came to Pwyll to express their sadness that he still did not have an heir. They suggested leaving Rhiannon and marrying another woman who would bear him a son. Pwyll answered that they were married for a relatively short time so they could still have children. Grant me a year from this time, and for the space of a year we will abide together, and after that I will do according to your wishes, he said. A year later Rhiannon gave birth to a healthy son. Tired after childbirth she fell asleep and the baby was entrusted to six women to watch over it at night. However, they fell asleep and when they woke up, the royal heir was gone. Terrified that they would pay for it with their own lives, they devised a plan: There is here a stag-hound bitch, and she has a litter of whelps. Let us kill some of the cubs, and rub the blood on the face and hands of Rhiannon, and lay the bones before her, and assert that she herself hath devoured her son, and she alone will not be able to gainsay us six.

When princess woke up and asked for her son, wicked women started  to persuade her that although they were trying to protect him, Rhiannon ate her own child. Of a truth we never saw any woman so violent as thou, they added. Rhiannon did not get caught by the accusations and assured women that she would defend them if they lied out of fear. They, however, kept lying. Soon the news spread all over the country and people demanded Rhiannon to be put to death for the crime. Pwyll did not agree but felt responsible as a ruler to draw consequences towards his wife. To expiate the act attributed to her, the princess was to sit in the gate to the castle for seven years, tell her story to anyone who did not know it yet and offer that she would carry the traveller on her back into the palace. Luckily, not many demanded that. Although innocent, Rhiannon was enduring her ordeal with dignity and humility.

Meanwhile at the night when Rhiannon’s son was born some other strange events took place. Teirnyon Twryv Vliant, Lord of Gwent Is Coed had an incredibly beautiful mare which regularly foaled on May, 1st but a colt kept vanishing mysteriously. Eventually angry Twryv decided to bring the mare into the house for the time of delivery and to watch over her fully armed. The mare indeed gave birth to a large and beautiful colt but right after that, he heard a great tumult and saw an enormous claw entering through the window and taking the colt. He threw himself at the big hand with his sword and cut it off in an elbow so only the hand with the colt remained. Outside tumult enhanced so Teirnyon ran away to check what happened but it was so dark that he could see nothing. When he came back home, he noticed a baby boy wrapped in a satine mantle lying on the door behold. He brought the baby to his wife and they both decided to adopt him and call Gwri Wallt Euryn for the sake of his blond hair. Boy was growing up rapidly, much faster other children; being just one year old he was bigger than a three year old child, while he was two, he seemed to be six and when he was four, he bribed the grooms to allow him to take the horses to water. Seeing how quickly he was growing, Teirnyon’s wife convinced husband to give boy the colt which was born on the same night as he.

Eventually the news of what happened with Rhiannon reached their castle. Teirnyon felt sorry for her and he started to ask what exactly happened and observed the boy whom he was raising. He noticed his great resemblance to Pwyll and realised he would have to give him back to his real parents. His wife agreed and the same day Teirnyon went to Dyfed with the boy. They met Rhiannon in the gate and in accordance to her penance, she offered to carry them on her back to the palace as a punishment for devouring her own child but Teirnyon refused. They got to the palace where Pwyll welcomed them cordially and invited for a meal. While they were eating Teirnyon told the prince of what had happened in the night when the boy and the colt were born. And behold here is thy son, lady– he said to Rhiannon. – And whosoever told that lie concerning thee, has done wrong. Everyone confirmed boy’s great resemblance to Pwyll and it finished Rhiannon’s ordeal. She called the boy Pryderi meaning ‘Loss’ and Teirnyon was offered great treasures, however being a modest man he did not accept them. Still he was in the great favour of both Rhiannon and Pwyll until his death. Pryderi grew up to be a talented and wise young man and he inherited the throne after his father’s death; he was greatly loved by his people. And thus ends this portion of the Mabinogion.

After Pwyll’s death Pryderi married Kicva and became ruler. He managed to enlarge his lands and went for a war with Ireland together with Bendigeid Vran (Bran) son of King Llyr** who attacked the lands of his brother-in-law in revenge for the treatment of his wife Branwen, Bendigeid’s sister. Pryderi was one of the seven men who survived the bloody battle between the Welsh and the Irish. He came back home accompanied by Manawyddan, Llyr’s other son whom he befriended so much that he decided to marry him to his widowed mother. He arranged a welcome feast to honour his guest and seated him next to Rhiannon. His plan succeeded, Manawyddan and Rhiannon took a fancy to each other and got married soon. For some time Pryderi, his wife, mother and stepfather lived peacefully but one day while they were outside, a storm raged and a strange mist descended on the country. When it disappeared, it turned out that they found neither buildings nor people nor cattles; it seemed as if in the whole Dyfed there was no single person except of the four of them. They remained all alone in their lands for two years but eventually they got bored of having no companionship.

So they set off to England where Manawyddan and Pryderi became so good craftsmen that local guilds turned against them because their products were much more popular  than the local ones. The Welsh decided to leave the town and move to another one but the same history repeated there. They moved to yet another town and again they were better than local craftsmen irrespective of whether they were producing saddles, shields or shoes. Their work made buyers delighted but it also aroused the anger of local craftsmen so eventually they decided that it was useless to stay there and came back to Dyfed. After a month  Manawyddan and Pryderi went hunting. They came across a great boar of pure white which led them straight to a newly built castle which they saw for the first time. The boar ran straight into the castle and Pryderi’s hunting dogs went after him. Since they were not coming back for a long time, he decided to go inside and take them even though Manawyddan suggested staying.

There was not a trace of a boar and hunting dogs inside neither any signs of people living there. There was, however, a murmur fountain in the centre with a golden bowl hanging over it. Pryderi was so amazed by the the quality of craft that he came to the bowl and placed his hands on it. He did not realise it was enchanted and when he wanted to take his hands back, it turned out to be impossible; he could not utter a word neither. Manawyddan was waiting for him to come back until the evening but eventually he returned to the palace and told Rhiannon about what had happen. She reproached him for not accompanying Pryderi and went searching for her son herself. When she entered the castle and saw him, she touched the bowl and fell under the spell too. Thunderstorm came again and mist enshrouded the castle making it vanish.

Kicva, Pryderi’s wife, fell into despair thinking she could lose him, however Manawyddan promised her that she would certainly have him back. Since they had neither hunting dogs nor food, they emigrated to England again where Manawyddan worked as a shoemaker once more. His products were of the highest quality as always so the local craftsmen turned against him and after a year Rhiannon’s husband had to flee from the town. Luckily, Manawyddan and Kicva took a burden of wheat with them to Dyfed so they sow the seeds which grew up profusely. Additionally, Manawyddan went fishing and deer hunting so they did not starve. Unfortunately, when the time of harvest came, it turned out that some mysterious creatures cut all the ears leaving stalks only. Manawyddan decided to watch over crops to save what had remained; it turned out that around midnight a big host of mice appeared on the field and carried the ears away. Manawyddan managed to catch one of them to the glove.

He was going to execute it but then suddenly a man appeared and came closer; he seemed to be a scholar which surprised Manawyddan because he saw no unknown person in this land for last seven years. When they started to converse and a stranger found out what Rhiannon’s husband was intending to do, he was trying to convince him to sell him the mouse. Manawyddan, however, did not agree so the scholar went away. Soon a priest rode with the same offer and  even higher price. Still Manawyddan did not want to sell the mouse so a priest left but Rhiannon’s husband could already see a bishop with his attendants approaching. He offered money again but Manawyddan kept refusing even though the price was getting higher and higher. Eventually bishop offered to release Pryderi and his mother. Manawyddan understood that the mouse is more valuable than it seemed so he additionally demanded the spell to be taken off Dyfed.

Bishop had no choice but to agree. He admitted that in fact he was a mage named Llwyd son of Kilcoed and his pregnant wife was disguised in the body of a mouse. He also revealed that he cast the spell on Dyfed to revenge the insult which Rhiannon and Pwyll made to his friend Gwawl son of Clud. He transformed into mice with his household members and went to Manawyddan’s fields, however because of her condition his wife could not run as fast as the others and was caught. He asked Rhiannon’s husband to release her and assured he would give up his revenge and take spell off Dyfed and he would never do it again. When Llwyd brought Rhiannon and Pryderi back, he returned his wife to him. Life came back to Dyfed and there were people, villages and cattles again. And thus ends this portion of the Mabinogi.

IMAGES, SYMBOLS AND ANIMALS

The animal mostly associated with Rhiannon/Rigatona is a horse. Roman images of a woman riding a horse remained to this day; they probably depict either Rigatona or Epona.

Rigatona

Rhiannon is also connected with the Underworld through her birds. Mabinogion mentions her miraculous birds which sang so sweetly that warriors listening to them fell under their charm for eighty years. Three birds had magical skills to wake the deads up and put the living to sleep. In an old Welsh legend about Culhwch and Olwen, one of Culhwch’s tasks is to get Adar Rhiannon – The Birds of Rhiannon  (he wants to marry Olwen but her father does not accept it and demands from suitors things impossible to get). Birds also appear during the feast in the Second Branch of Mabinogion:  the singing of the birds of Rhiannon (…) and there came three birds, and began singing unto them a certain song, and all the songs they had ever heard were unpleasant compared thereto; and the birds seemed to them to be at a great distance from them over the sea, yet they appeared as distinct as if they were close by, and at this repast they continued seven years.

Other animals associated with Rhiannon are a boar, dogs and a badger (Welsh game ‘a badger in a bag’ was traditionally initiated when Gwawl, Rhiannon’s suitor, was closed in a bag and teased).

Rhiannon is also associated with the symbol of cauldron (magical bowl in a castle), typical for Celtic goddesses (Welsh Cerridwen, Irish Brigid and triple Morrigan), which makes her the goddess of magic. Some researchers claim that similarly to Irish Medb (Maeve) and Welsh Gwenhwyfer (Guinevere) she is the goddess of sovereignty and grants the throne to the man who marries her. Like a Hellenic goddess Demeter she is linked with horses and perceived as the goddess of abundance and fertility.

DIVINATION MEANING

Person

Someone with a great need of moving or a person of a swift mind. Someone who is experienced in life, wise, bright and ingenious. A person of great patience and dignity.

ADVICE

It is you who is right in the situation you are inquiring. Do not let people around you make you believe you are not. Have no doubt of who you are, what you do and where you are heading. You are good enough in whatever you are planning so do not allow fears to destroy your potential.

A gaslightning *** method may being used to belittle you, do not stop believing in your own feelings, impressions and emotions. You are right.

Time to change and move forward. A trip is a good idea.

Reflect deeply on what you are intending to do because you will not be able to turn back the time.

Movement. Velocity. Change. Power. Dignity. Mobility. Internet. Happy ending of a difficult situation.

Love

If you are in the relationship: time of testing or ordeal. Speak honestly about what you want, sometimes it is enough to simply ask for it. False accusations. Re – marrying. Being deprived of/granted the custody over the child.

If you are single: this card suggests meeting somebody during a journey.

Finances

Loss, typically not caused by wastefulness but by decision of an office or a bank. It is possible to compound or to bend the rules in order to change this situation. Departure, most probably abroad.

Health

Beware of falling down and injuries. Endangered parts of the body: musculoskeletal system (bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments).

CARDS

Rhiannon hurrying with horses and birds in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Rhiannon in The Goddess Oracle by Hrana Janto&Amy Sophia Marashinsky

Rhiannon in The Oracle of the Goddess by Gayan Sylvie Winter&Jo Dosé

Rhiannon in The Oracle of the Goddess by Gayan Sylvie Winter&Jo Dosé

Rhiannon in Goddess Inspiration Oracle by Kris Waldherr

Rhiannon in Goddess Inspiration Oracle by Kris Waldherr

Rhiannon as The Chariot in The Goddess Tarot by Kris Waldherr

Rhiannon as The Chariot in The Goddess Tarot by Kris Waldherr

Rhiannon in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Rhiannon in The Goddess Oracle Deck by Thalia Took

Rhiannon in Goddesses Knowledge Cards by Susan Seddon Boulet&Michael Babcock

Rhiannon in Goddesses Knowledge Cards by Susan Seddon Boulet&Michael Babcock

Rhiannon in Goddess: A New Guide to Feminine Wisdom by River Huston&Patricia Languedoc

Rhiannon in Goddess: A New Guide to Feminine Wisdom by River Huston&Patricia Languedoc

An interesting representation of Rhiannon in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Rhiannon in The Goddess Power Pack by Cordelia Brabbs

Rhiannon in Goddess Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue (I think I have expressed my views about this ‘work of art’ clearly enough in the review of Doreen Virtue’s deck so I will not say a word more)

Rhiannon in Goddesses Guidance Oracle Cards by Doreen Virtue

Rhiannon as Knight of Swords in Universal Goddess Tarot by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

Rhiannon in Universal Goddess Tarot deck by Maria Caratti&Antonella Platano

* It also affected other Welsh legends about King Arthur, most probably both Morgaine – Morgan Le Fey and Gwenhwyfer – Guinevere were at first goddesses. Legends about King Arthur have been formed in their ultimate shape around 15th century under the French influence while original Welsh myths are as old as at least 6th century. To be honest these versions often differ like fire and water. Both Rhiannon’s husbands are also considered to be originally gods; Pwyll was the lord of the Underworld while Manawyddan seems to be a Welsh counterpart of Irish god of the sea called Manannán.

** Prototype of Shakespear’s King Lear.

*** “Gaslighting is a form of psychological abuse used by narcissists in order to instill in their victim’s an extreme sense of anxiety and confusion to the point where they no longer trust their own memory, perception or judgment. The techniques used in “Gaslighting” by the narcissist are similar to those used in brainwashing, interrogation, and torture that have been used in psychological warfare by intelligence operative, law enforcement and other forces for decades.

The intention is to, in a systematic way, target the victim’s mental equilibrium, self confidence, and self esteem so that they are no longer able to function in an independent way. Gaslighting involves the abuser to frequently and systematically withhold factual information from the victim, and replacing it with false information. Because of it’s subtly, this cunning Machiavellian behaviour is a deeply insidious set of manipulations that is difficult for anybody to work out, and with time it finally undermines the mental stability of the victim. That is why it is such a dangerous form of abuse. The emotional damage of Gaslighting is huge on the narcissistic victim. When they are exposed to it for long enough, they begin to lose their sense of their own self. Unable to trust their own judgments, they start to question the reality of everything in their life. They begin to find themselves second-guessing themselves, and this makes them become very insecure around their decision making, even around the smallest of choices. The victim becomes depressed and withdrawn, they become totally dependent on the abuser for their sense of reality. In effect the gaslighting turns the victim’s reality on its head.” (from Narcology)

Based on original issue of Mabinogion available online (much to my joy) here: http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/mab/mab20.htm and http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/mab/mab24.htm

as well as English Wikipedia, http://wintergrovecoven.tripod.com/deities.html , http://www.thaliatook.com/AMGG/rhiannon.html , http://www.joellessacredgrove.com/Celtic/deitiesr-s.html, http://www.joellessacredgrove.com/Celtic/deitiesn-o-p.html .

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